Thursday, March 24, 2011

Words to Live By (or at least study)

My life has lately been a flurry of helping other people take standardized exams (SAT, PSAT, SSAT, ACT, AP English exams. SAT subject tests and even the LSAT), and if there is one thing I know for dang sure it is this: wide readers ace these exams because reading--and only reading--gives students exposure to more words.

It's all about the vocab, after all. Most of the Verbal questions on these tests are actually veiled vocabulary questions.

The Writing multiple-choice questions can be answered easily by students who have naturally absorbed the rules of good writing through reading.

Example #1 (pretty easy for educated adults; not that easy for a weak reader who is 16 or 17 years old):  Hoping to reverse the final call in the game, advocates for the defeated champions submitted a statement claiming that the game had been run by ________ referees.
A) venal
B) incorruptible
C) illustrious
D) prodigious
E) veracious

Obviously, students need to know these words--or at least they need to know if the words are good/bad, or positive/negative. Clearly, a negative word is needed here, and the only negative word is venal.


Example #2 (slightly harder--still manageable for well read people, but I have yet to find a tutee who can easily answer this question, probably because the words are old-fashioned in some cases):
Some airport concourses are so heavily laden with people and luggage that even the most _____ travelers find them virtually _________.
A) cumbersome....cluttered
B) spry....unnavigable
C) weary....byzantine
D) seasoned....unsullied
E) active....passable

I won't get into the tricks typically employed in the double sentence completion questions (the writers like to make one word on either end work, while the other doesn't, just to confuse students). That's a strategy discussion for another day. So, what's the answer?

It's B.


(Both examples quoted from my absolute favorite SAT prep book, "Outsmarting the SAT" by Elizabeth King).


The SAT, like any of these exams, is full of questions that use challenging vocabulary words as possible answers. If students are unfamiliar with those words then they are up a creek when it comes to answering, aren't they?

Yes, students can get handy lists of vocab words to study before the big standardized exams. This may help a bit  (it will definitely help more than NOT studying vocabulary).

But, after a certain point, if a student hasn't really, truly been a reader until very recently, he or she will never do as well as the kid that has always liked books, the student who has always read everything.

I was that sort of kid. I would read medicine bottles, any old magazine I could find (on any subject). I liked novels, yes, but my favorite book as a child was--I kid you not--a joint replacement textbook, albeit one written for a younger audience. 

I also loved reading about Switzerland for some reason, and this came on the heels of Johanna Spyri's Heidi...as I told one of my tutees recently, "The mark of a good student is that she will get inspired by a certain idea she reads about, and then seek out and read everything else she can find on tangentially related subjects."

That's what I did with Switzerland. The aforementioned classic novel Heidi and a kindergarten report on climate in Switzerland led me to a few years of reading about cheesemaking, tuberculosis sanitariums and even yogurt testing as a possible career. (What can I say? When I was younger, I thought that sounded amazing. I really like yogurt.)

People who like to read will always jump at the chance to read more. But why wouldn't a student like to read?

Reading is a relaxing or exciting or inspiring escape. Once a child gets a taste of how delicious reading can be, she will want to read more.

Having a parent who is always reading serves as a great motivator. Read to your kids and in front of your kids. Show your kids that reading is a delight.

The best thing anyone can do for children is to give them a great book and keep supplying them with books, enabling the book habit. Establish a book habit early on for your kids; make the library or bookstore a treat to visit.

I work with a student now who will literally reach for his ever-present book if I even stop talking for one and a half seconds. This child is super smart, and he reads constantly. He has to read. He blows my mind in terms of how much he knows. 

We were speaking yesterday--I work with him only to provide him with more intellectual stimulation and enrichment--about the trifecta of crises in Japan (earthquake, tsunami, nuclear facility catastrophes), and he impressed me to no end because he already knew, at his very tender age, about Strontium 90 and the periodic table of elements, and all sorts of other things that he was only aware of because he reads.

This is what a difference reading can make. An elementary school child can know more than most adults. It helps to start young, sure, but the point is this: Just start reading. Read every day.

A recent educational study in England ended with the recommendation that kids read 50 books a year. That works out roughly to a book a week.

I've been saying that my whole life (and it takes a formal study for people to actually consider it, right?)...read a book a week, at least. 

I tell all my tutoring students to also read a few magazines a week. Start with one news article a day; work up from there. It's easy to fit in reading while using exercise machines, or while lying in a bathtub. Read in the car (unless you're driving; in which case, listen to an audiobook or NPR). 

Fit more reading into your life and you'll increase your exposure to words and inevitably become a smarter person, a more accomplished student, and a higher-scoring test-taker.

I'll leave you with the hints I always give my students: Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel, The Scarlet Letter contains dozens of words that regularly find their way onto the SAT.  (The vocab in Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights, another classic 19th-century novel, is largely the same.)

Students should also make their own vocabulary flashcards--this helps sear new words into the memory by incorporating kinesthesia with visual learning. The act of researching the best and shortest definition and thinking about word tricks and related words helps, too.

See my previous posting on word study here (one of my favorite postings): http://prettyfreaky.blogspot.com/2010/09/you-say-you-know-what-that-word-means.html

Aim to learn 20 new words a week! That's in addition to the one book (at least) you should be reading, along with the news magazines.

You say there isn't time? Make the time. Your life (and your test scores) will be enriched immeasurably. 

It's worth the time it takes to do this.

39 comments:

  1. This is excellent advice, but I've got one more piece:

    In high school, my honors English teacher made his students memorize latin prefixes, suffixes, and roots.

    It's almost like cheating, really - most english words can be easily identified this way. Even though I don't really fully remember them all, having practiced using them throughout a semester, I've found that I can make pretty good guesses at the meaning of words - even though it's been 4 years now.

    Good luck! And here's hoping someday, we find a better method of measuring scholastic aptitude than standardized tests.

    ReplyDelete
  2. OK...that takes care of the English. What about the math/arithmetic?

    ReplyDelete
  3. Hi @Cokehead (I feel like a bad person typing that).

    Yes, knowing word roots/suffixes/prefixes helps immensely. The other book I tell all my tutees to purchase is WORD POWER MADE EASY by Norman Lewis. It does exactly what your teacher did: gives you the tools to dissect/define any word.

    I feel ridiculous sometimes adding, in a way, to the furor over standardized tests. I agree that they are NOT the direction we should be going in when it comes to true education. Still, it's what the people demand, so it's what I offer.

    I still hope that my own kids might live in a world where these exams are no longer used. I'm probably dreaming, though.

    Best,

    EC

    ReplyDelete
  4. @MartinDH,

    Ah, good question! I am, or was, an English teacher. I am demonstrably weaker in math, although if I worked at it, I could certainly bring it up again. The trick in the math sections is not to do the math work, necessarily, but just to recognize the incorrect answers...which leads one to the correct choice. I also brought up my math score quite a bit by skipping questions. Obviously, if you want an 800 in math, you can't really do this, but if you're going to be perfectly happy with a mid-600s score, feel free to skip a few here and there.

    Best,

    EC

    ReplyDelete
  5. Great insights, Liz! I liked testing myself on your sample questions (FYI, I did pretty well). I'm definitely raising one reader in my household (Sam) and working on another (Ellie.... not so much yet, but she does love listening to a good story as long as it includes a princess somewhere). Keep up the good work!

    ReplyDelete
  6. Hm, I'm not a native speaker and both questions were easy. Since I have obviously never taken a SAT, what are the hardest questions there?

    ReplyDelete
  7. Hi @Cyberax, You're probably well read. That's the problem with many students (not all). They are not as well read as they could, or should, be. A word such as "spry" is like Arabic to them; they've never seen it or heard it used in real life.

    The hardest questions are generally the passage analysis (reading comprehension) questions that ask students to use their reasoning skills to determine the sort of statement or idea that an author of a passage would or would not agree with.

    Students HATE those questions, and every once in a while I, too, find them to be very difficult to answer (I think this is because of the question's writing, not because of what is being asked). Some questions are just bad questions, you know? Luckily, if no one gets it right, it ceases to count!

    Best,

    EC

    ReplyDelete
  8. Thanks, Daisy! Listening to stories (as in Ellie's case) will inevitably make her crave reading them on her own, so I am sure it will work out!

    Best,

    liz

    ReplyDelete
  9. "Aim to learn 20 new words a week." ?!
    Hey, I'm 54: I already know about 250,000 words. I'm pleased to learn one a month. How about "enfeoffed"?
    And a felicitous Potrzebie to you all!

    djlactin (as opposed to "Anonymous").

    ReplyDelete
  10. Ms. Collins,

    I came here from Pharyngula...and, needless to say, I completely agree with your analysis. I have been tutoring the SAT for at least a decade, and in the process have observed one salient constant: avid readers simply do better, period. This is most obvious on the fill-in portion of the exam, which is the only part explicitly predicated on vocabulary. Many voracious readers may not know what a word means, but they will know whether it's "good" or "bad" and be able to proceed accordingly (needless to say, "Venal" would not be my first choice for that example above, but as you note, it's the the only "negative" word).

    The reading comprehension portion is a bit more difficult to predict, strangely enough, as avid readers tend to acquire another, possibly negative trait with their enhanced reading skills: a tendency to overanalyze. That said, the reading comprehension section is a breeze once you've done enough practice exams to actually understand what the test is looking for...and once you've become acclimated to the standard "wrong answer" choices of the denser questions.

    ReplyDelete
  11. I was/am a reader, but I think nothing prepared me better than studying OTHER languages. The benefits of a classical education meant I went in to my SATs with Latin and ancient Greek- essential for figuring out otherwise unknown vocabulary. But even the years of Spanish I took in school and the Italian spoken sporadically at home helped significantly. At age 31, those educational benefits STILL come through with new jargon.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Excellent post!
    You are right that there is no substitute for being exposed to words in their contexts.
    But the benefit of wide reading goes well beyond that exposure.
    Effective reading involves a tactical skill with which the reader assesses the writer's intent. Most occasional readers, and even many avid readers are not aware of it, but we constantly size up the writer as we read. If the words flow smoothly, without any unexpected twists, then we usually trust the narrator and accept what's written without further examination. But if a paragraph requires two or three readings, we look at the next paragraph more closely. Writers are, after all, a shifty bunch, and most will try to sneak a fast one by the unwary reader when they can. That skill translated directly to success on the SATs, the writers of which are the very shiftiest of all.

    ReplyDelete
  13. I agree with both of the Anon. comments above. Sometimes, as a teacher of SAT prep, I don't like the answer choices, either (I would never write "venal" if I had written that sentence, but students have to go with the *best* choice out of what might very well be semi-cruddy choices).

    I agree that foreign language study is invaluable, even when it comes to SAT/ACT vocab that is largely in English. For example, I told my students the other year, "Expect to see the word 'ennui.'" Most of them took Spanish, and I had to explain the word, because it's French (even though foreign language students can often figure out things such as this). One student was absent for that class. She came back, exasperated about a word she didn't know: ennui.

    Often, words are taken from other languages--these sorts of words can often be seen in news magazines or other nonfiction.

    Best,

    EC

    ReplyDelete
  14. Cyberax said...

    " Hm, I'm not a native speaker and both questions were easy."

    Well, it seems you are at the very least bilingual, so even if you are only moderately well read in two or more languages you are already way ahead of those that are only fluent one language. I myself come from a family where we all spoke three languages from birth. We all picked up few more by living in different places around the world.

    ReplyDelete
  15. I wholeheartedly agree! Exposure to vocabulary and grammar, the earlier the better, is vital. Pretty much my earliest memory (and one of my most cherished) is sitting aged 3-4 on my father's knee as he held Tolkien's The Hobbit in front of us and read to me and with me; making sure I was keeping up, pausing to explain and answer any questions I had. Thirty years on, and barely a day has passed without me finding time to read at least a little of something.
    Reading for pleasure makes reading to learn much easier, and often indistinguishable.

    ReplyDelete
  16. This is exactly the problem with most standardised tests. What is being examined here? Certainly not proficiency in English. In what sense is learning anachronistic words that are never actually used beneficial?

    Novels like The Scarlet Letter are the reason I read mainly non-fiction now. Expecting all children to learn in this way turns many off education in general, which is a tragedy.

    Everyone should be literate to a standard that allows them to function in society - but not all children are natural readers. Some are mathematicians, some are engineers, some are natural scientists. Expectating them to get the same enjoyment out of reading is not only misguided, it's also cruel.

    -bsk

    ReplyDelete
  17. Well. I could argue (and have) that over-emphasizing math for all students, when most people never use higher-level maths in their day-to-day lives, is a waste of time. I would rather see more emphasis on cultural literacy. But maybe that's because I prefer metaphorical thinking and connecting ideas between literature, philosophy, religion and history.

    I thought The Scarlet Letter was an excruciatingly boring read when I was in high school. I've since read it about 20 times, and I now quite like it. I won't argue that there are not, however, much more interesting reads. Reading is what's important. I only mention TSL because it's a (sad) fact that its words are often seen on the standardized tests...perhaps because most American students are still taught this novel in high school.

    Best,

    EC

    ReplyDelete
  18. I agree the same argument can be made for maths. Think of The Scarlet Letter as the literary equivalent of real analysis or measure theory.

    I have a general problem with the way standardised tests are used. My point is that people have different strengths and interests, and only the necessary parts of each area should be compulsory. Not enough effort is made to accommodate individuals.

    -bsk

    ReplyDelete
  19. I have some comments on kids reading. First my own childhood was more than fourty years ago. A lot may depend upon interests and early experiences. I was always reading science popularization books, and these you had to carefully parse nearly every sentence and think about. It was great for math/science, but it made reading novels a sort of awful punishment, as my slow careful reading style meant an inordinate amount of time was spent doing it. Then I can remeber a disaster while taking the actual SAT. I was proofing my answers for one section of the math (I got through the first pass with plenty of time to spare), and I noticed how I had gotten nearly every answer wrong! After much erasing and refilling, to my horror, I discovered I was correcting the answers to a different section of the test! Didn't get a good score, and I wasn't admitted to my first choice colleges.
    Then my sons are quite bright. But interested in computers and programming and such. Very hard to get them to read much. But they kick derrier in math and science just like their dad did. These tests are tough on those with unbalanced interests, as they can't measure narrow but deep knowledge.

    ReplyDelete
  20. Interesting discussion, particularly in relation to math since I am a math teacher. To well on the math portion requires a parallel experience to that of English: an early start and wide exposure. But it only takes a moment's thought to realize this is a very simple principle: the greater knowledge base you have to draw on then the better your performance will be on exams that test that knowledge.... So, best advice to all you parents out there: start reading and arithmetic early, and don't rely on schools. Play math and word games at home with your children.

    ReplyDelete
  21. The need to read is why America's homework fetish is counterproductive.

    ReplyDelete
  22. I didn't care too much how I did on the math section because I knew I wasn't about to find a career that had anything to do with math. My college didn't care about my score (which was above average), and my grad school didn't even look at it. I don't think it works both ways, however; an abysmal reading comp and writing score probably *would* matter to colleges, because it shows general lack of either knowledge or something a bit off with one's brain. At any rate, I think we should just hope to have reasonably matching scores...because it quite literally shows balance.

    Love the idea about playing math and word games with kids. Too many kids have a visceral reaction against word games on tests...ironically, because they involve reading!

    Best,

    EC

    ReplyDelete
  23. I should also mention that I don't really believe in homework...unless it's reading!

    EC

    ReplyDelete
  24. To echo a few comments above about the value of Latin: I was always an avid reader, but when I took the PSAT and the SAT, it seemed that a huge chunk of my score was attributable to having learned a lot of Latin vocabulary and a little Greek (the benefit of a British education). It seemed as though the pattern for options for the vocabulary answers was along the lines of two serious contenders, one less appropriate contender, one chuckle-raisingly wrong option, and one word I'd never heard of. Just by recognizing roots, I could reduce guesswork from 1 in 3 or 1 in 4 to 1 in 2 or better. The years of Latin felt like something between perfect preparation and cheating.

    ReplyDelete
  25. Yes, simple Process of Elimination can lead a test taker to mostly correct answers...two are DEAD wrong (obvious to nearly everyone), one is correct, one COULD be correct (but is not the best answer), and then there is often an "ALL of the above; NONE of the above" or similarly repetitious answer choice. Most test-takers can weed out three, but then they second guess themselves, even though their instinct would lead them to the correct answer, in most cases. Psychology.

    Best,

    EC

    ReplyDelete
  26. Math nerd here. Sick of folks saying they won't need fancy math, and horrified by Collins. It takes a certain amount of math simply to have any sort of judgment about what is true or not, particularly with people trying to influence you for their own gain. Innumeracy of the people is a major impediment to good self-government too. The ability to interpret evidence is critical pretty much everywhere.

    Is reading Homer, Voltaire, Dante, or Shakespeare useless just cause I don't need them to do my next task in cancer research?
    Please don't say yes.
    -rork

    ReplyDelete
  27. Rork you are horrified by me...why? I am not saying math is useless; if you are into math and going to use it in your life, study math all you want. I think in the US, we are always hearing, "American students need to catch up in math and science..." Maybe they do. But not at the expense of literacy! As an English teacher, I was constantly under pressure because parents and students didn't see English as "important." IMHO, English was the most important subject of all (but of course, I am biased). Not being able to write coherently, not being able to understand reading matter--it infects most other subjects. It is the most basic education. Yes, I use math in my life, but nothing fancy; it has honestly never come up. I studied it, but I never saw it again, ever. I won't say that math class is a waste of time, but over-emphasizing math for EVERYONE, as a general prescription, is wrong, I think. It's about being well-rounded, of course, but it's also about having a foundation...and I think the bulk of that educational foundation comes from reading and writing.

    Best,

    EC

    ReplyDelete
  28. This is absolutely true. We had a niece with problems reading, so we spent a month with her reading lots of public domain fiction: Dickens, Austen, Wilde, Eyre, and the like. By the time she got through A Room With A View, she was starting to get it. Her SAT score went up 140 points, and now she can read and enjoys doing so. I don't think everyone can do what she did. She was always smart, just not much of a reader, but there is nothing like reading a lot to get good at it.

    P.S. Don't get me started on the "everything but programming" school of computer programming with its complex methodologies and organizing principles and Knuth knows what else. Sure, it pays to think about the problem, but there is no way to learn save by doing.

    ReplyDelete
  29. I've always been an avid reader, but I have cranked it up a bit lately thanks to my new toy- the Kindle eBook reader. With no bookstores in my neighborhood (or within 50 miles or so) Amazon was a major improvement to me, but there was always the frustrating delivery time once I placed an order. But no more! One click & I can get almost any book I want immediately!

    One thing about reading on the Kindle that has changed the way I read is the built-in dictionary. Just move the cursor next to the word you don't know, and bam- there's the definition! I can see how a young person could easily expand a vocabulary using a reading device like that.

    ReplyDelete
  30. Thanks for your post. The reading bug has been very beneficial to me over the years - I just turned fifty, and I only eat a couple of books a month these days. I'm in a similar situation to an earlier commenter - lots of vocabulary (quite often of the kind that is no longer utilized in regular conversation), and wondering how to get an extra twenty words into the synapses every week.

    But what I'm really interested in is something much more critical to me at this point in my life. I would like to make some sort of attempt at becoming a productive (and employed) member of society once more. I've always enjoyed tutoring, and although my specialties have lain in the mathematical and scientific (physics/chemistry) areas, I believe I could manage to fake it well enough to do fairly well on the SAT in the vocabulary oriented sections to be able to help tutor others.

    Especially if it involves enough income to keep things going around here - I've now been unemployed for well over two years (it's about two years since the severance pay ran out, and the unemployment checks stopped coming in a couple of weeks before last Halloween*) and things are starting to fray at the edges. I have been able to find a half a dozen serious employment opportunities since being laid off in January 2009 but have gotten one initial interview, and no follow up, from anything else. And, for some strange reason, the stress of survival mode and constant spam from the only comments appearing at my site might possibly be contributing to the ongoing case of writer’s block that I have been sporadically dealing with for the last couple of years.

    Please trundle on over to my web site to get more of a handle on what I could do if I ever got the chance, and let me know if you can think of a way for me to get through the Second Great Depression without being herded out to an ice floe - before they're no longer available - after being drained of the meager resources I've managed to hold on to until now.

    * - I'm so old, I remember when Halloween was spelled Hallowe'en and there were no fancy spell checkers to tell you how wrong you were when you forgot the apostrophe - just a Catholic nun with a ruler hovering over your desk...

    ReplyDelete
  31. I traveled here from Pharyngula. I am an avid reader and never had trouble with the lit-based portions of standardized tests. My husband is also an avid reader but he leans heavily toward non-fiction. I read both but lean toward fiction (I will pick up a few shampoo bottles now and then too.) We have two children and I worried so much about my oldest. He loved to be read to, but he did not like to read early. The only things I could convince him to read were little bits of field guides and pokemon cards. I worried so much because I felt that his reading (especially his fluency) wouldn't get much better if he didn't at least try some good stories from time to time. It turns out I was wrong. All those little science bits he came across and books with random facts have blossomed my son into a very strong reader. He still leans mostly on non-fiction but he reads fiction storied on his own from time to time. His automaticity has increased heavily and as a third-grader his reading level according to STAR Literacy tests is 4.2-6.6. I worried whether he would be able to really comprehend those but he has been bringing books on Ancient Greece and talking all about them. He thinks he might like to try to read Harry Potter soon but is a little daunted by its size. At this point I am extremely thankful that he made his own way into reading and that I didn't try too hard to force him into mine. I just threw as many books as I could at him and sometimes pleaded with him to try one. I read to him as often as I could and let him know when I was enjoying a good book. We communicated with him every time we came across new information by reading and as much as he loves new information he picked up on that.

    ReplyDelete
  32. Tom,

    Chemistry tutors are constantly in demand (I recommend signing up with Wyzant or a similar service, because even though as a tutor you never see your actual hourly rate, you will get students that way--but if you have a natural audience, go solo), if you have that ability, as I do not. I do some tutoring in Bio...you could try adjunct teaching at a community college or local university. I wish I knew some secret--I lost my job most unjustly (I won't even get into it), and the market is appalling, but you might even try teaching at a Catholic school...the exact place I just left. I keep very busy tutoring now, and doing my own freelance work, but to be sure, it's a constant slog; it's never a sure thing. Best of luck, Elizabeth

    ReplyDelete
  33. Hi Kerry--

    I liked your story, and as you well know, it's reading ANYthing that matters. People who have a wide background in reading of any sort are people who will be successful in all areas...not just these standardized tests. So many people never read much of the technical stuff--they are so lacking that they are really stumped on the big tests. Being able to pay attention to what is read is really the key...and much of that comes down to being interested in the reading matter. Let your kids read whatever interests them, I think. My little one is listening to Harry Potter every night now, and even though she is capable of reading it herself, it is still soothing to be read to. Even her older sibling listens in...and both of them are picking up many new words. I am not worried about the fact that I am doing the reading in these bedtime sessions. The key is to have lots of good books available so when the kids are ready, they will pick them up.

    Best,

    Elizabeth

    ReplyDelete
  34. Oh, Elizabeth. You've got to get into those magazines they publish for college-bound and college campus kids. They will LOVE your sense of humor and all your solid advice. Those and you need to write a book for parents and one for students about all this. I'm not kidding. The competition, you already know, keeps getting tougher. You'd be such a help. Peace,

    Diane

    ReplyDelete
  35. Thanks for the ideas and the encouragement, Diane! It does not take a genius to understand that it all comes down to reading (greater exposure to information), but what always alarms me is how many parents don't walk the walk in front of their kids. I suppose it takes an inherent love of books to do this, however. Here's hoping more people can at least fake enthusiasm for reading, for the sake of their kids' SAT scores!

    Best,

    EC

    ReplyDelete
  36. I teach high school math, and I have 11 year old twins of my own. I tend to use "big words" when speaking both to my students and to my twins.

    My students tell me they learn more about vocabulary and grammar in my class than they do in English. I insist on correct grammar and correct my students' grammar when it is incorrect...even though I teach math. I believe I teach "students" and not just that I teach "math".

    At least once during every math lesson, I use a word and the class looks at me puzzled and asks, "What did you say? What does that mean?". I then stop the lesson, write the word on the overhead projector and take the time to discuss it's meaning,..then, go on with my lesson. I once had a student write down each and every new word he learned in my class! He gave me a copy of it at the end of the year, and I felt so tickled that my students had learned that many new words in my math class!

    My own children have a wonderful vocabulary, both from reading and from hearing my "big words" and understanding what they mean from the context in which I use them. So, yes, reading is very important, but it is also important to have parents, teachers, or other role models in a child's life that speak on a high level and model correct grammar, pronunciation and usage of "big words".

    ReplyDelete
  37. I think it's great what you do. Students (actually, all people) need to hear different words used around them and realize they are behind the curve if they don't know all those words. That will inspire them to use such words in their speaking, for sure. I think it's all symbiotic, though, and I have to take it back to reading, or at least link it again. By hearing the big words from you, maybe when the student sees the words in print, something will click...it's akin to the way we need to see a commercial 100 times before we even register it and realize what it's about. Exposure in all forms makes a real difference.

    Best,

    EC

    ReplyDelete
  38. Good post and Smart Blog
    Thanks for your good information and i hope to subscribe and visit my blog Ancient Egypt and more Sanctuaries The Early Iron Age in Ancient Greece thanks again admin

    ReplyDelete